عنوان مقاله [English]
In general, four generations have the knowledge inventory of “public policy implementation”: the top-down, bottom-up, hybrid, and emerging generation -policy regime, enforcement science. In the light of the inspirations of these four generations, theoretical models have been developed based on various reference points about the “life of public policy implementation”. All knowledge in the study of public policy and public administration has been centered around the “great policy-administration dichotomy”. The author argues that the models of public policy implementation as well as the coordinates of public policy in four contingent approaches to implementation can be analyzed by relying on two original strategic reference points in policy and administrative knowledge (political will-administrative capacity).